As the lyrics of this beautiful song at 3.40 minutes, I’m convincted of the fact that legacy is an important way to transmit values of peace and joy through generations.

I mentioned in a previous article Lokarri’s initiative to work for reconciliation and peace process in the Basque Country.

This is due to the Basque conflict about the existence of ETA’s terrorist activities, an armed separatist organization inspired by Marxist-Leninist (revolutionary).


ETA was founded on the 31st of July, 1959, by some students and their action originally focused on resistance to General Franco’s dictatorship, which, in the early days of its existence, has contributed to the capital of the public sympathy, not only at local level but also at international level, as shown by some media files at the time.

A division of ETA took place on the 13th of September, 1974: The military wing favored armed struggle, the political-military wing gave birth to political parties as Herri Batasuna or Euskadiko Ezkerra, which clearly distinguish the moderate positions of the PNV (Basque Nationalist Party).

The main revendication of ETA is the Basque Country independence, even more after the Basque Autonomous Community adopted two statutes of autonomy:

– The first, when the Civil War began, but did not include Navarre and was eliminated by the General Franco’s regime (6th October 1936)

– The second, called the Statute of Guernika (25th October 1979).

Here is an overview of the status categories experienced (in French) in an extract from Francis JAUREGUIBERRY’s thesis, (Professor in Sociology, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris 1983)

Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country (english version) – Webstite of the Basque Country government



Victims of ETA are more than 800 deaths, not counting the wounded and kidnapped, but there were also victims in the terrorist group.

The establishment of the Antiterrorist Liberation Groups (GAL), Spanish police and paramilitary forces, active from 1983 to 1987, whose main goal was to kill or kidnap ETA’s activists in France and that the French state took positions against ETA, officially did more than 34 dead and 50 wounded (torture was common).

Organizations under Franco’s regime and during the transition to democracy were formed to combat ETA in illegal ways and could be financed by political parties for diversion of budget (eg, Triple A or the Spanish Basque Battalion, the anti-Marxist Commandos, the Spanish Armed Groups.).

Most relevant, a dozen French citizens without any political affiliation known were killed by the GAL.



There were truces, but did not last long.

However, on the 10th of January, 2011, a ceasefire « permanent, complete and verifiable », announces ETA’s desire to stop the armed conflict in the Basque Country.

From this resolution were born:

– The « Brussels Declaration » signed by several organizations and international mediators, as Brian Curin.

* Read the full text of the Brussels Declaration on this link:

* Article in the country on the mediator Brian Curin and its mission:

– The « Guernica Agreement » signed by the main forces of the nationalist left party (as Batasuna’s leader, Arnaldo Otegi)

On the 20th of October, 2011, the Basque separatist organization announced on a video sent to the BBC « the definitive end of its armed action » through a press release:



About 700 members are in jail in Spain, mainly in France and other countries.

Strikes are organized by associations or citizens, also hunger strikes by prisoners, more recently, to obtain the release of 14 prisoners for health reasons.

Spanish prison policy is therefore a focus of debate, with the question of the amnesty required by ETA organization as a condition of complete disarmament, while Spanish and French governments want a resolution without any condition imposed by the group.

Everyone can appreciate this dichotomy.

I dont’ really know Spanish law and its penitenciary system, that’s why I will not be in a accusatory state of mind, although recently the European Court of Human Rights condemned Spain for the continued detention of irregular of a militant convicted as an ETA terrorist activist, and called for his release.

Read judgement of ECHR Chamber

Spain position after this judgement–spain-challenges-echr-parot-doctrine/

I suggest, however, to consult the following link to the website of the Interior Ministry, which contains the prison legislation, and specifically for terrorism:

English version

Terrorism (Spanish Version only)*

In France, the principle of individual guilt is a cornerstone of criminal law and its application is well described by the Senate at the following link (French only):

As for amnesty, acts of terrorism described from the articles 421-1 to 421-6 of the Criminal Code and related offenses are excluded from amnesty, as you can read through the Senate Website (french only) on http :/ /

«  France has passed a variety of anti-terrorist laws, the first of which being the 19th century lois scélérates restricting freedom of expression. Today, magistrates in the Justice Ministry anti-terrorism unit have authority to detain people suspected of « conspiracy in relation to terrorism » while evidence is gathered against them. »

(Wikipedia Source)

* Description of acts of terrorism (and related crimes), the struggle strategy and the guarantee found for victims

– French Constutional Council (in english version)

– French Diplomacy Website (in english version)



For further discussion, I propose through various journalistic medias, several views of this conflict, with possible ways of action for resolution.

Historical documentaries, reports and interviews that highlight the need, on both sides, to treat this problem from the analysis of its roots and its intrinsic connections with the social and political history, the defense of the identity values ​​and the burden of the collective unconscious.

The collective unconscious is a basic concept of the theory developed by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung to describe all kinds of phenomena and images back to consciousness, but that does not belong to his own experience.

It contains all the spiritual inheritance of the evolution of humanity, born again in brain’s structure of every individual and seems to embrace mythological motifs or primordial pictures as symbols and fantasies, which is why the myths of all nations are its real exponents.

The history with its successive wars and its human consequences (crimes against humanity, rape, laws limiting the rights of citizens based on their religious affiliation or origin, etc …), carries the collective unconscious, fixed in a variable intensity in each of us.

Close family ties, the concept of Nation defence are also vectors for transmission of this collective unconscious.

Those are values ​​of respect and tradition that can be promoted during these times of crisis, however, we have to adjust them to the current living conditions, which lead us to open ourselves to the Other, to build a real partnership with him.

The other side of the coin is that collective unconscious can also transfer pain and sorrow, matched with anger and revenge, who « fertilize » uncontrolled violence and destruction of ideals.

What we have to figure out and keep in mind is that, without being unfaithful to the past of our ancestors, we must build our individuality and not absorb experiences that are not ours, especially to sustain blames and create a lack of dialogue, which leads to praise extremist positions.

The past and future generations can be integrated into this process of reconciliation and peace, but only if they are able to pay the price of sacrifice.

Just be aware about the fact that what we could make the world different by leaving him a generous legacy.

Audrey JACOB


3 commentaires

Laisser un commentaire

Choisissez une méthode de connexion pour poster votre commentaire:


Vous commentez à l’aide de votre compte Déconnexion /  Changer )

Photo Google

Vous commentez à l’aide de votre compte Google. Déconnexion /  Changer )

Image Twitter

Vous commentez à l’aide de votre compte Twitter. Déconnexion /  Changer )

Photo Facebook

Vous commentez à l’aide de votre compte Facebook. Déconnexion /  Changer )

Connexion à %s

Ce site utilise Akismet pour réduire les indésirables. En savoir plus sur la façon dont les données de vos commentaires sont traitées.